This statute, after first stating "that the right of recovering the presentments to churches, prebends, and other benefices …
belongeth only to the king’s court of the old right of his crown, used and approved in the time of all his progenitors kings of England," proceeds to condemn the practice of papal translation, and after rehearsing the promise of the three estates of the realm to stand with the king in all cases touching his crown and his regality, enacts "that if any purchase or pursue, or cause to be purchased or pursued in the court of Rome, or elsewhere, any such translations, processes, and sentences of excommunications, bulls, instruments or any other things whatsoever ...
In the 18th and 19th centuries, scientists, influenced by Enlightenment philosophers, developed a system of categorizing things in nature, including humans.
Although Carolus Linnaeus was the first to develop a biological classification system, it was German scientist Johann Blumenbach who first introduced a race-based classification of humans, which established a framework for analyzing race and racial differences for the next hundred years.
Eventually it was decided that there was no legal obstacle to establishing formal diplomatic relations.
The enigma of iron tools that predate the Iron Age has long puzzled archaeologists.
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In English history, praemunire or praemunire facias was a 14th-century law which prohibited the assertion or maintenance of papal jurisdiction, imperial or foreign, or some other alien jurisdiction or claim of supremacy in England, against the supremacy of the monarch.
Praemunire declined in importance, but experienced a resurgence under Henry VIII as the Protestant Reformation unfolded.The Statute of Praemunire (the first statute so called) (1353), though especially leveled at the pretensions of the Roman Curia, was also leveled against the pretensions of any foreign power and therefore was created to maintain the independence of the crown against all pretensions against it.